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Hiroshima for Global Peace

Hiroshima Report 20181. China (Nuclear-Weapon State)

Points / Full Points (%)

Nuclear Disarmament


China, possessing approximately 270 nuclear warheads, has promoted active modernization programs for its nuclear forces (particularly, ICBMs and SLBMs). It neither participated in the negotiation conference of the TPNW, nor signed the treaty. While reiterating a commitment toward a world without nuclear weapons, China is the only NWS that has not reduced its nuclear arsenals. China has neither ratified the CTBT nor declared a moratorium on production of fissile material for nuclear weapons. It has declared no first use of nuclear weapons and the unconditional negative security assurance. While arguing the importance of transparency in intention, China has maintained the least transparency about nuclear weapons capabilities among the NWS.

Nuclear Non-Proliferation


China acceded to the IAEA Additional Protocol, in which no provision for complementary access visits is stipulated. It has announced to take efforts to strengthen implementation of sanction measures vis-à-vis North Korea under the UN Security Council Resolutions, as well as its export-control mechanisms. Questions remain as to whether China is conducting adequate and strict implementation, however. China has also been criticized for exporting two nuclear power reactors to Pakistan, which may constitute a violation of the NSG guidelines.

Nuclear Security


China is advancing the introduction of the recommendation measures of INFCIRC/225/Rev.5, such as legislation and physical protection measures against sabotage acts. In addition, China is taking a positive attitude toward strengthening nuclear security, including efforts to minimize HEU, acceptance of IAEA IPPAS mission, and capacity building activities through newly established COE.

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