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Hiroshima for Global Peace

8. Pakistan ■Non-Party to the NPT

Nuclear Disarmament -2.5 Points Full Points 98 -2.6%
Change compared to the Hiroshima Report 2021:+0.5
Pakistan seems to be increasing its nuclear arsenal incrementally, and is estimated to possess 160 nuclear warheads. In addition to continuing to develop and to deploy short- and medium-range ballistic missiles, it revealed possession of low-yield, small nuclear weapons. Such developments raise concerns about the increased possibility of the use of nuclear weapons at an early phase of a conflict. It has not signed the TPNW. While maintaining a moratorium on nuclear test explosions, it refuses to sign the CTBT. Pakistan continues to block the commencement of negotiations on an FMCT at the CD, and voted against the UNGA resolution calling for immediate commencement of FMCT negotiations. It has yet to declare a moratorium on production of fissile material for nuclear weapons.
Nuclear Non-Proliferation 9 Points Full Points 43 20.9%
Change compared to the Hiroshima Report 2021:0
Pakistan has not yet acceded to the IAEA Additional Protocol. It argues that it has made efforts to enhance its export control systems; however, it is still unclear how robust or successfully implemented such export control systems are in practice. Pakistan has argued that it is qualified to be accepted as an NSG member, but has yet to achieve this status. A private research institute reported that Pakistan’s procurement network of nuclear-related technology is larger than expected.
Nuclear Security 19Points Full Points 41 46.3%
Change compared to the Hiroshima Report 2021:-1
Pakistan has not ratified some conventions relevant to nuclear security, but announced in 2020 that it is actively considering joining the ICSANT. Pakistan has enforced national regulations in line with the recommended measures of INFCIRC/225/Rev.5 and has also taken regulatory measures on computer security, insider threat, and sabotage. Furthermore, it has made efforts to improve its transparency through the publication of its national nuclear security regime. Pakistan joined the Nuclear Security Contact Group in 2019. On the other hand, there was no new commitment regarding the prevention of illicit trafficking in 2021 continuing from the previous year.
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