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Hiroshima for Global Peace

Hiroshima Report 20231. China ■Nuclear-Weapon State

Nuclear Disarmament 11.5 Points Full Points 109 10.6%
China is the only NWS that has not implemented substantial nuclear disarmament measures, and insists that its participation in the nuclear weapons reduction process is premature. The number of its nuclear warheads is gradually increasing, and China currently possesses approximately 350 nuclear warheads. It has promoted active modernization programs for its nuclear forces (particularly, ICBMs and SLBMs). It has been speculated that China would possess more than 1,000 nuclear weapons in the next decade. China has not signed the TPNW. It has not yet ratified the CTBT. It voted against the UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution on a FMCT, and has not declared a moratorium on production of fissile material for nuclear weapons. It has declared no first use of nuclear weapons and the unconditional negative security assurance. While arguing the importance of transparency in intention, China has maintained the least transparency about nuclear weapon capabilities among the NWS.
Nuclear Non-Proliferation 29 Points Full Points 47 61.7%
China frequently opposed the adoption of UN Security Council resolutions (UNSCRs) and IAEA resolutions on the North Korean and Iranian nuclear issues. China acceded to the IAEA Additional Protocol, in which no provision for complementary access visits is stipulated. Although it has announced to take efforts to strengthen implementation of sanction measures vis-à-vis North Korea under the UNSCRs, as well as its export-control mechanisms, questions remain as to whether China is conducting adequate and strict implementation. Also, violations on sanction measures against North Korea under the UNSCRs also have been pointed out. China has also been criticized for exporting two nuclear power reactors to Pakistan, which may constitute a violation of the NSG guidelines. Since 2017, China has not submitted a report based on the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium to the IAEA.
Nuclear Security 18 Points Full Points 38 47.4%
China has ratified all nuclear security-related conventions; and has established a national implementation system for A/CPPNM. The highest standards of nuclear security are being applied to new nuclear facilities as well. The country is promoting capacity building through increased investment in nuclear security-related innovations. It hosted an IPPAS mission in 2017. China continues to contribute to the NSF. China’s view on the prohibition of attacks against nuclear facilities was not confirmed.
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