1. China ■Nuclear-Weapon State
||Full Points 101
|Change compared to the Hiroshima Report 2021：-0.5
|China is the only NWS that has not implemented substantial nuclear disarmament measures, including the reduction of its nuclear arsenals. The number of its nuclear warheads is gradually increasing, and China currently possesses approximately 350 nuclear warheads. It has promoted active modernization programs for its nuclear forces (particularly, ICBMs and SLBMs). Reportedly, China has been alleged to construct totally more than 300 silos for its ICBMs. Beijing has reiterated that the U.S.-Russian significant reductions of nuclear weapons would be a condition for participating in multilateral negotiations on nuclear weapons reductions, and refused to accept the U.S. request to participate in nuclear arms control negotiations among the U.S., China and Russia. China has not signed the TPNW. It has not yet ratified the CTBT, and has not declared a moratorium on production of fissile material for nuclear weapons. It has declared no first use of nuclear weapons and the unconditional negative security assurance. While arguing the importance of transparency in intention, China has maintained the least transparency about nuclear weapon capabilities among the NWS. While it has been pointed out that China has been likely to change its nuclear posture different from the declaratory policies, Beijing consistently denied the allegations.
||Full Points 47
|Change compared to the Hiroshima Report 2021：0
|China acceded to the IAEA Additional Protocol, in which no provision for complementary access visits is stipulated. Although it has announced to take efforts to strengthen implementation of sanction measures vis-à-vis North Korea under the UN Security Council Resolutions (UNSCRs), as well as its export-control mechanisms, questions remain as to whether China is conducting adequate and strict implementation. Also, many violations on sanction measures against North Korea under the UNSCRs. China has also been criticized for exporting two nuclear power reactors to Pakistan, which may constitute a violation of the NSG guidelines. Since 2017, it has not submitted a report based on the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium to the IAEA.
||Full Points 41
|Change compared to the Hiroshima Report 2021：-1
|China has ratified all nuclear security-related conventions and has also advanced national legislation based on INFCIRC/225/Rev.5. China has also shown its willingness to actively strengthen nuclear security, including the establishment of a Nuclear Security Technical Cooperation Center with the IAEA. Furthermore, it has been active in international assistance in minimizing the use of HEU, but there was no new commitment in this area in 2021 continuing from the previous year.